Additional outcomes measures
The HoNOS family of measures, is required to be collected by mental health services. ADOM is a voluntary collection but it is envisaged that it will eventually become a required collection for PRIMHD. Taku Reo, Taku Mauri Ora, is a useful tool for individual level work.
In addition to the above outcomes measures there are a number of rating scales which may also have some relevance to the mental health and addiction community.
The Adelaide University rating scale website covers much of this material, but here the emphasis is on a number of specific measures.
This list is limited to some of the more useful and popular rating scales used in the New Zealand setting, with the focus on:
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) - a highly-regarded validated measure for assessing the severity of depression. It consists of 21 multiple-choice self-report questions, designed for people over 13 years old.
Hamilton Anxiety rating scale - a widely-used clinician-rated, validated measure for assessing anxiety. It consists of 14 questions and can be used for both adults and children.
Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) - a reliable, validated measure used to assess the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It consists of 30 items, clinician-rated on a seven-point scale (where 1=absent and 7= extreme).
Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN) is a family of questionnaires for assessing the wide range of problems that can be experienced by a mental health service user with severe mental health problems. It was developed in the 1990s (Phelan et al., 1995) and exists in a variety of formats, one of which is the CAN Short Appraisal Schedule, CANSAS.
The Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS) is a short (one-page) assessment which summarises whether a person with mental health problems has difficulties in 22 different areas of life, and whether they are currently receiving any effective help with these difficulties. CANSAS is designed to be used in routine clinical work or as an outcome measure in research studies.
The adult CAN was developed and tested for use with adults of working age (16-65) who were in contact with mental health services, and were receiving treatment in hospital, community and NGO settings.
- Kings College London - Institute of Psychiatry
- Factor structure in the Camberwell assessment of need
- Reliability of the Camberwell assessment of need
- Comparitive study
- Development and evaluation of a service user rated version of CAN
The Kessler 10 (K10) is a short questionnaire used to assess stress, anxiety and depression levels of service users when they enter a service, and ongoing until discharge. The self-report scales can be shared with mental health workers to help with recovery planning.
In some states in Australia clinicians are mandated to ask service users if they would like to fill out the K10. There is a fun Australian DVD called ‘Breaking News with Sarah Tonin.’ It shows service user actors and others discussing how they might use the K10. The DVD is available from the Mental Health Coordinating Council (MHCC).
Client-Directed Outcomes Informed (CDOI) clinical work - tools developed by therapists for service users. They are quick and easy tools which can demonstrate how things are going.
Outcomes Rating Scale (ORS) - can be completed by a service user before a session with their mental health worker. The scale focuses on the previous week and rating four areas of life. The ratings can help decide what to work on - focusing on what is and isn't working in life.
Session Rating Scale (SRS) - the SRS has only four questions. The answers show what a service user thinks about the session they've just had with a mental health worker.
WHOQOL (World Health Organization quality of life measure) - is an internationally respected self-rated measure assessing the quality of life which people have.